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Delta Cooling Towers – What is a Cooling Tower?

What is a Cooling Tower?
A cooling tower is heat removal device that uses water to transfer process waste heat into the atmosphere. All cooling towers operate on the principle of removing heat from water be evaporating a small portion of water that is recirculated through the unit.  The mixing of warm water and cooler air releases latent heat of vaporization, causing a cooling effect to the water.  They are a key component of many refrigeration systems and can be found in industries such as power plants, chemical processing, steel mills, and many manufacturing companies where process cooling is necessary.  Also, cooling towers can be used to provide comfort cooling for large commercial buildings like airports, schools, hospitals, or hotels. Types of Cooling Towers
Cooling towers might be one of the most vital part of any industrial process. These tall, open-topped, cylindrical structures are responsible for cooling water generated from industrial or hvac comfort cooling process. They are classified by the type of draft (natural or mechanical) and by the direction of air flow (counter or cross).- Natural Draft Cooling Towers are usually used for large power plants and industries with infinite cooling water flow. The tower operates by hot air in the tower rising removing waste heat and then releasing it into the atmosphere. These towers are tall and have a hyperbolic shape to induce proper air flow.- Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers have air forced through the structure by a fan that circulates air through the tower. Common fans used in these towers include propeller fans and centrifugal fans. While Mechanical draft towers are more effective than natural draft towers, they consume more power and cost more to operate as a result. - Crossflow Towers has a design that allows the air to flow horizontally through the fill and the tower’s structure into an open plenum area.  Hot water flows downward from distribution basins. There is less recirculation because the speed of exit air is higher than entering air. However, fans and motor drive require weather-proofing against moisture which can lead to freezing making it less efficient.- Counterflow Towers has a design where the air is vertically upwards and the counter current with hot water is falling downwards to cool the air. This allows for maximum performance out of each plan area and helps minimize pump head requirements. Also, they are less likely to ice up in cold weather conditions and can save energy in the long run. All Delta Cooling Towers are counterflow with these advantages.- Induced Draft towers are typically mounted with a fan at the top of the cooling tower, which allows hot air out and pulls air throughout.  The high exiting air velocities reduces the chance of recirculation. To avoid the entrapment of water droplets in the leaving stream air, drift eliminators are used.  Induced draft towers are more efficient as they use 30% to up to 75% less energy compared to forced draft designs. - Forced Draft towers are similar to induced draft but the basic difference is that the exhaust fan is placed at the base of the cooling tower, which allows the air to blow from the bottom.  Their use is limited due to water distribution challenges, high horsepower fans and the possibility of re circulation.
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